Tackling Cookstove Emissions in India: Towards an Enabling Policy Environment and More Effective Legal Solution


Tuula Honkonen
Center for Climate Change,
Energy and Environmental Law (CCEEL),
University of Eastern Finland,
PO Box 111, 80101 Joensuu, Finland


Household air pollution resulting from cookstove emissions poses a serious threat to human health and well-being and is a significant contributory factor in local and global climate change. Household cookstoves are used on a large scale in India, and is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. India has had national air quality regulation and clean-cooking programs in place for several decades, but the problem of cookstove emissions persists. This paper provides a legal and policy analysis of the current Indian regulatory setting with regard to reducing emissions from household cookstoves. It is characterized by the interplay of a number of different objectives, policy instruments, actors, and levels of governance. The analysis results in the identification of conditions, elements, and tools for more effective and integrated future policy-making and regulation for reducing cookstove emissions. The research results of this paper are presented within the Indian context but have applicability beyond the Indian context as well: people in many developing countries rely on cookstoves for cooking and heating and the resulting emissions form a remarkable environmental, social, and human health problem.


Air pollution, black carbon, clean cooking, climate change, cookstoves, India.


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